How were the demographic processes in the Kashkadarya region during the years of independence?
Master of the Faculty of History of Samarkand State University Shodiyor Kholikulov is conducting a scientific study on the analysis of demographic processes in the Kashkadarya region during the years of independence.
- The historical analysis of the demographic processes that took place in certain regions of Uzbekistan during the years of independence is of great scientific importance, - says Shodier Kholikulov. - After all, this allows us to identify such features of the regions as their historical development, specific natural and geographical conditions, socio-economic and demographic potential, territorial composition, the presence of various forms of population settlement. One of these regions is the Kashkadarya region.
Brief analysis of demographic processes in the Kashkadarya region for the period 1990-2020 showed that socio-economic, demographic factors play an important role in certain changes that have occurred in the region. In particular, the demography of the oasis in the period under review is characterized by a slowdown in population growth from other regions of the republic, a decrease in fertility and mortality, a reduction in the sequence of births, a change in the density and distribution of the population, an increase in average life expectancy, a slowdown in the growth of the urban population compared to the rural one, and an intensification of migration.
If we proceed from the analysis of the national composition of the population, then if in 1989 Uzbeks made up 85% of the population of the region, then by 1995 this figure was 91%. As of 2013, Uzbeks accounted for 92.3% of the ethnic composition of the population of the region. In second place are Tajiks with 4.3 percent. There are more Turkmens and Russians than representatives of other nationalities. This change is connected with migration processes in the first years of independence.
It should be noted that natural population growth rates differ in urban and rural areas, and the birth rate in rural areas is slightly higher than in cities. There are some objective and subjective reasons for this. In particular, the low level of employment of women in rural areas in social life, the need for labor in agriculture, where manual labor is most in demand, national traditions have led to a high birth rate over the centuries. And in the structure of the urban population, the activity of women of different nationalities in social life, the housing problem, depending on economic and social factors, and other reasons, lead to a slightly lower birth rate.
In subsequent years, that is, between 1989 and 2014, the population will grow much faster. For example, the average annual increase was 5.70 percent in the Mubarak region, 4.75 percent in Kasan, and 4.10 percent in the Kitab and Nishan regions. Relatively low demographic growth is observed in Dekhkanabad - 2.40 percent, Karshi - 2.50 percent and Kasby region - 2.50 percent. It should be recognized that according to these indicators, the Mubarak region occupies one of the first places in our republic. Such a rapid growth of the region's population is associated not only with natural reproduction, but also with the migration of the population; as a result of the development of natural resources, a large number of families moved here.
The upper region in many ways resembles the densely populated, intensively developing oases and valleys of the Shakhrisabz, Yakkabag and Kitab regions of the republic. At the same time, population densities are quite high in some parts of the region, including Karshi. The indicators of the natural movement of the population differ significantly from the indicators of other regions, in particular the Surkhandarya region. Thus, the birth rate here is 25.1 per 1000 population. The highest level was recorded in 2000 in the Chirakchi region, where it amounted to 34 people. The birth rate is also significantly higher in the Yakkabag district - 26.7 percent. Currently, the total fertility rate is lower in Mirishkor, Karshi and the region. In 2013, Chirakchi district also stands out in terms of the birth rate (30.0 percent). There is no big difference between the rest of the rural areas, the birth rate in the regional center, the city of Karshi, is 21.5 ppm...
When analyzing labor resources in the context of districts, the highest rates were noted in Chirakchi, Kasan, Kamashinsky and Shakhrisabz districts, the largest number of economically active population was in Chirakchi district (146.0 thousand people) and the city of Karshi (130.6 thousand people). ). The lowest indicators of the economically active population fell on Mirishkor (54.7 thousand people) and Mubarak (46.2 thousand people) districts.
Summing up, we can say that the demographic changes in the Kashkadarya region during the years of independence directly depended on the socio-economic spheres. At the same time, the increase in the weight of the urban population as a result of the influx of people into cities, as well as the main reason for the increase in the weight of representatives of indigenous peoples in the national population structure, can be explained by the return of representatives of indigenous peoples to their homeland and an increase in the birth rate in rural areas. The main ways to solve the problem of employment of the population were mainly associated with the intensification of socio-economic development on a regional scale, the accelerated development of industrial and social infrastructure sectors based on local needs in accordance with the development of productive forces.
Samarkand State University